1850-09-09: California becomes the 31st state

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California

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Published in: on June 9, 1850 at 6:31 pm  Leave a Comment  

1848-08: News of Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo reaches Monterey

"Finally, in August 1848, news of the peace treaty with Mexico reached Monterey."

 Fink, Augusta. Monterey: The Presence of the Past. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1972. p. 94

Published in: on August 1, 1848 at 6:20 pm  Leave a Comment  

1848-07-04: Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo Proclaimed

The treaty was signed on February 2, 1848 and ratified by the United States Senate on March 10 and by Mexico on May 19, 1848.

TREATY OF PEACE, FRIENDSHIP, LIMITS, AND SETTLEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES CONCLUDED AT GUADALUPE HIDALGO, FEBRUARY 2, 1848; RATIFICATION ADVISED BY SENATE, WITH AMENDMENTS, MARCH 10, 1848; RATIFIED BY PRESIDENT, MARCH 16, 1848; RATIFICATIONS EXCHANGED AT QUERETARO, MAY 30, 1848; PROCLAIMED, JULY 4, 1848.
http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/mexico/guadhida.htm 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Guadalupe_Hidalgo 

Published in: on July 4, 1848 at 12:00 am  Leave a Comment  

1848-02-02: Peace Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo signed; Mexico Cedes California to the US

Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo signed, ending U.S. Mexican war. As a part of the Mexican Cession, in return for $15 million, Mexico ceeds California to the US.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Guadalupe_Hidalgo

Published in: on February 2, 1848 at 5:34 pm  Leave a Comment  

1847-01-13: Treaty of Cahuenga ends U.S. Mexican War

End of Mexican war with US.

The Treaty of Campo de Cahuenga

TO ALL TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME, GREETING:

Know ye that, in consequence of propositions of peace, or cessation of hostilities, being submitted to me, as commandant of the California Battalion of United States forces, which have so far been acceded to by me as to cause me to appoint a board of commissioners to confer with a similar board appointed by the Californians, and it requiring a little time to close the negotiation; it is agreed upon and ordered by me that entire cessation of hostilities shall take place until tomorrow afternoon (January 13th), and that the said Californians be permitted to bring in their wounded to the mission of San Fernando, where, also, If they choose, they can remove their camp, to facilitate said negotiations.

Given under my hand and seal this twelfth day of January, 1847.

J. C. Fremont Lieutenant-Colonel United States Army, and Military Commandant of California

Articles of Capitulation made and entered into at the Rancho of Cahuenga, this thirteenth day of January, Anno Domini, eighteen hundred and forty-seven between P. B. Reading, Major; Louis McLane, Jr., Commanding Artillery; Wm. H. Russell, Ordnance Officer, Commissioners appointed by J. C. Fremont, Lieutenant-Colonel United States Army and Military Commandant of the Territory of California; and Jose Antonio Carillo, Commandante de Esquadron, Augustin Olivera, Diputado, Commissioners, appointed by Don Andres Pico, commander-in-chief of the California forces under the Mexican flag.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Cahuenga

Published in: on January 13, 1847 at 4:39 pm  Leave a Comment  

1846-07-07: Commodore John Drake Sloat claims all of California for the United States

Commodore John D. Sloat raises the American flag over the Customs House in Monterey claiming Monterey and all of California for the United States.

Sloat was Commander-in-chief of the United States naval forces in the Pacific ocean.

http://americahurrah.com/Larkin/Sloat.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_D._Sloat

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Monterey

http://www.militarymuseum.org/BFR.html

http://www.militarymuseum.org/MexWarLA.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_American_War_Campaigns

http://www.dmwv.org/mexwar/documents/sloat.htm

http://www.militarymuseum.org/AcqCA.html

http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist6/muzzey.html

http://www.sonofthesouth.net/mexican-war/mexican-war-time-line.htm

"GENERAL STEPHEN W. KEARNY was placed in command of the Army of the West, with instructions to conquer New Mexico and California. He left Fort Leavenworth in June, 1846, and, after a journey of 900 miles over the great plains and among mountain ranges, he arrived at Santa Fe, Aug. 18, having met with no resistance. Appointing Charles Brent governor, he marched towards California, and was soon met by an express from COMMODORE ROBERT F. STOCKTON, and LIEUT-COL. JOHN C. FREMONT, informing him that the conquest of California had been achieved. Fremont and a party of explorers, sixty in number, joined by American settlers in the vicinity of San Francisco, had captured a Mexican force at Sonoma pass, June 15, 1846, with the garrison, nine cannon, and 250 muskets. He then defeated another force at Sonoma, and drove the Mexican authorities out of that region of country. On July 5 the Americans in California declared themselves independent, and put Fremont at the head of affairs. On the 7th Commodore Sloat, with a squadron, bombarded and captured Monterey, on the coast; on the 9th Commodore Montgomery took possession of San Francisco. Commodore Stockton and Colonel Fremont took possession of Los Angeles on Aug. 17, and there they were joined by Kearny, who had sent the main body of his troops back to Santa Fe. Fremont went to Monterey, and there assumed the office of governor, and proclaimed, Feb. 8, 1847, the annexation of California to the United States."

http://www.sonofthesouth.net/mexican-war/war.htm

The second Cyane, a sloop, was launched 2 December 1837 by Boston Navy Yard. She was commissioned in May 1838, Commander J. Percival in command.

She sailed 24 June 1838 for duty in the Mediterranean, returning to Norfolk 16 May 1841. She cleared 1 November 1841 for the Pacific Station, returning 1 October 1844. Sailing again for the Pacific 10 August 1845, Cyane served on the west coast during the Mexican War. On 7 July 1846 her commanding officer, Captain W. Mervine, led a detachment of Marines and sailors from Commodore Sloat's squadron ashore at Monterey, Calif., hoisting the American flag at the Customs House and claiming possession of the city and all of upper California.

On 26 July 1846 Lieutenant Colonel J. C. Fremont's California Battalion boarded Cyane, now under the command of Commander S. F. DuPont, and she sailed for San Diego 29 July. A detachment of Marines and sailors from Cyane landed and took possession of the town, raising the American flag. They were followed shortly by the Fremont volunteers and Cyane's detachment returned aboard to sail for San Blas where a landing party destroyed a Mexican battery 2 September.

Entering the Gulf of California, Cyane seized La Paz and burned the small fleet at Guaymas. Within a month she cleared the Gulf of hostile ships, destroying or capturing 30 vessels. In company with Independence and Congress, she captured the town of Mazatlan, Mexico, 11 November 1847. She returned to Norfolk 9 October 1848 to receive the congratulations of the Secretary of the Navy for her significant contributions to American victory in Mexico.

http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/c16/cyane-ii.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Cyane_(1837)

http://personal.linkline.com/shoe62/anza/calhist5.html

 

1846-03-05: John C. Fremont Raises American flag over Gabilan Peak

March 5-9, 1846: Second Lieutenant of Topographical Engineers of the United States Army John C. Fremont and his team of surveyors raise an American flag over Gabilan Peak, now known as Fremont Peak.

http://www.gilroydispatch.com/lifestyles/contentview.asp?c=180949

http://www.nava.org/Flag%20Information/articles/Fremont/fremont_flag.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_C._Fremont

http://www.nndb.com/people/885/000049738/

http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=F000374

1845-12-10: John C. Fremont arrives at Sutter’s Fort, Alta California

December 10, 1845: John Charles Fremont, Army Second Lieutenant of Topographical Engineers, arrives in Alta California with 60 armed men. They camp in Sutter’s Fort for a month.

Fink, Augusta. Monterey: The Presence of the Past. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1972. p. 13

http://www.pinnaclenews.com/life/contentview.asp?c=181107

http://www.civilwarhome.com/fremontbio.htm

http://www.civilwarstlouis.com/Bios/Fremont.htm

http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=F000374

“On 10 December, Fremont reached John Sutter’s settlement at New Helvetia, better known as Sutter’s Fort and the future site of Sacramento.”

“Resting until late January, he then traveled to Monterey to call on the American consul, Thomas O. Larkin, and the Mexican Commandant, Don Jose Castro. Fremont arrived at a time of internal tension, for Castro and the governor of California, Don Pio Pico, were at odds. In addition, the previous governor had been ousted earlier, and contacts outside California were virtually nonexistent. The presence of the well armed topographic party aroused Castro’s attention and suspicions about American intentions in California. He had reason to be concerned, for only a few years earlier an American naval force had temporarily occupied Monterey.

Castro treated the American explorer with courtesy, giving him permission to resupply but not any written consent to stay in California. The topographer told Castro of his peaceful intent, and assured him that his party only carried weapons to hunt game and for protection against the Indians. His purpose for being in the area, Fremont explained, had to do with finding a shorter route to Oregon and other “scientific purposes,” but winter had caught him in the mountains. He told Castro he had come to Monterey seeking permission to set up a winter camp in the San Joaquin Valley. With Castro’s verbal approval for the Americans to stay for a while in the Sacramento Valley, Fremont moved his party to Laguna, a vacant ranch 13 miles southeast of San Jose, for refitting. During this period the main party rejoined the expedition.

The courtesy extended to the expedition to remain in California dwindled as the Americans appeared to linger in the area. Fremont’s men appeared to get along well with the local Spanish speaking Californians, drawn by curiosity to visit the encampment. During these gatherings the Californians impressed Fremont and his colleagues with their fine horsemanship. Near the end of February Fremont moved his 60-man party southwest toward the settled Santa Clara valley. On 3 March they encamped on the Hartnell ranch [Alisal Rancho] near present-day Salinas, only 25 miles from Monterey. Two days later the disturbed Castro dispatched one of his cavalry officers with an ultimatum ordering the expedition to leave California.

The Mexican authorities had every right to demand Fremont’s withdrawal. He had marched into settled regions under the guise of a peaceful scientific expedition during times of difficult relations between Mexico and the United States. Men like Carson, Walker, Owens, the other mountain men, and the Delaware Indians hardly looked like peaceful scientific types. Historians generally hold the view that Fremont was biding his time and waiting for the expected news that war had been declared. Bernard De Voto wrote of Fremont in The Year of Decision, 1846, that “destiny was stirring in his soul.”

http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/mexico/topo/Ch2.htm

http://www.mchsmuseum.com/news/0307.pdf (PDF)

http://www.hartnell.edu/foundation/history.html

Published in: on December 10, 1845 at 3:15 am  Leave a Comment